An Overview of the 8 Limbs of Yoga

Yoga goes far beyond honing postures and breathing exercises; yoga is a holistic practice that brings together different aspects of the mind, body, and spirit. In the historical teachings of yoga, Patanjali documented eight realms of Ashtanga, also known as the 8 limbs of yoga. While these ideas can be interpreted in many ways, having a general idea of these limbs can help deepen your practice and hone your understanding of yoga.

For seasoned yogis and newcomers to the practice alike, here is an overview of the 8 limbs of yoga:

8 limbs of yoga niyamas

1. Yamas: Ethical Standards, Moral Practices

The yoga yamas are five ethical standards and moral practices that yogis incorporate into their lives. Patanjali described these practices as universal vows to be practiced through words, thoughts, and actions. These ideas can be thought of as the first fundamental steps of your yoga practice, and as values to incorporate into our daily lives.

1. Ahimsa: This yama is typically interpreted to mean “non-violence.” This does not only mean refraining from acts of violence, but also finding compassion for all things, and making a conscious effort to be compassionate in your life.
See also: 12 Ways to Practice Ahimsa (Non-Violence) Everyday

2. Satya: The second of the yoga yamas, satya, means “truth.” This yama speaks to ways to practice honesty and candor in your life.  In the most basic sense, this idea helps yogis to accept things in their life for what they are, and be honest about the world around them.
See Also: Practicing Satya on and Off the Mat: A Comprehensive Guide

3. Asteya: At its most basic level, asteya means “non-stealing.” This can literally mean refraining from stealing, but in a larger sense, it means not taking what is not yours: not wasting time, not draining natural resources, and being mindful when asking for other’s time.
See Also: Asteya (Non-Stealing) in Yoga: Definition & Practice Guide

4. Brahmacharya: There are many interpretations of brahmacharya. Many translate it to mean celibacy, or in a general sense, exercising continence and impulse control within your body. Others interpret it to mean “the right use of energy,” and making an effort to channel your body’s energy in a productive way.
See Also: Brahmacharya: Using the Fourth Yama to Add Moderation to Your Life

5. Aparigraha: Often explained as “detachment,” and  “non-coveting,” aparigraha speaks to finding ways to let go and focusing on what is truly important.
See Also: Aparigraha: A Guide to the Fifth and Final Yama in Yoga

8 limbs of yoga niyamas2. Niyamas: Self Discipline, Spirituality

The second of the 8 limbs of yoga are the niyamas. Niyamas speak to self-discipline, observance, and spirituality in yoga and in life. While yoga yamas speak to our morals and internal practices, niyamas speak to how you interact with the world around you. These five practices are:

1. Saucha: Saucha encompasses cleanliness or purification. This can mean detoxifying your body, cleaning your space, and clearing your mind.
See Also: Practicing Saucha (Purity) On and Off the Yoga Mat

2. Santosha: This niyama speaks to contentment with our lives. It means not desiring or envying that which others have, and instead finding peace and joy in your current state.
See Also: Why Santosha is So Important in Yoga and Our Everyday Life

3. Tapas: Often interpreted as asceticism or self-discipline, this practice calls us to do things we may not want to, but we know are good for us. Also explained as “the burning desire to better ourselves” the practice of tapas focuses on the grit needed to push oneself through challenges, even when it is difficult.
See Also: Understanding Tapas in Yoga: Stoke Your Internal Fire

4. Svadhyaya: Svadhyaya speaks to the study of oneself, and the ability to look inward to improve. This practice ranges from introspecting to learn from your mistakes to contemplating your true hopes and desires.
See Also: Using Svadhyaya to Deepen Your Self-Study

5. Ishvara Pranidhana: This niyama also has several interpretations. Often translated as “surrendering to a higher power” or “devotion,” ishvara pranidhana speaks to giving in to authenticity and that which is true for you. For some, that may be a religious experience or devotion to a higher power. For others, that may mean living fully and being empowered from within.
See Also: Learn to Surrender Through Ishvara Pranidhana

8 limbs of yoga asana3. Asana: Poses

Asanas, or yoga poses and postures, are the third limb of yoga. Patanjali described asanas as “mastering the body to sit still for meditation.” Today, these poses are practiced around the world to enhance balance, coordination, and body control. From downward dog, to poses for better sleep, and many more, asanas enables yogis to challenge themselves and hone their ability to move and control their bodies.

See Also: How Long Should You Hold Hatha Yoga Poses?

8 limbs of yoga pranayama4. Pranayama: Breathing, Control of Breath

The fourth of the 8 limbs of yoga is pranayama, breathing and control of breath. Prana means “energy” or “life force,” and the practice of pranayama means honing your breath and the energy within your body. Taking the time to focus on your breath can increase your self-awareness can reduce anxiety, lower blood pressure, and increase blood flow.

See also: What is Pranayama Breathing?

8 limbs of yoga pratyahara5. Pratyahara: Sensory Control, Withdrawal

Pratyahara translates to “gaining mastery of external influences.” This can be interpreted as making wise choices about everything from the food you put in your body, to ideas you let in your mind. Practicing pratyahara means freeing yourself from external sensation and focusing your energy inward. One might think of this idea as refraining from the wrong external influences; for example, staying away from unhealthy foods and people who do not enhance your life. Instead, that energy is shifted towards healthier and more fulfilling external influences.

See Also: Pratyahara: The Complete Guide to the Fifth Limb of Yoga

8 limbs of yoga dharana6. Dharana: Concentration

Dharana means taking on a deep concentration and aiming your mind toward a singular focus. This practice can start simple, such as focusing your entire mind on bringing energy to one area of your body, or even setting your sight and mind on one fixed point. This practice helps the yogi focus on one single element of their practice and quiets other things on their mind.

See Also: Dharana: Definition and Explanation of the Sixth Limb of Yoga

8 limbs of yoga dhyana7. Dhyana: Meditation, Contemplation

The seventh of the 8 limbs of yoga encompasses meditation and meditative absorption. Highly correlated with the concentration practiced in the sixth limb of yoga, dhyana takes it a step further and deepens that focus. A phenomenon that has been described as “setting you free from yourself,” the practice of meditation has many benefits including calming the mind and can improving your full-body health.

See Also: Dhyana: An Explanation of the Seventh Limb of Yoga

8 limbs of yoga samadhi8. Samadhi: Integration, Divine Connection

The final of the 8 limbs of yoga, samadhi, translates to “putting together” or “integration.” Historically, many have interpreted samadhi to mean finding connection with the divine through yoga, and a sense of holistic peace with yourself. Others interpret this to mean mastery and understanding of all eight limbs of yoga. If you have reached this stage in your practice, you have focused energy on moral practices and self-discipline. Through this holistic practice, you have put time and energy into fueling your mind and body, and you have honed your concentration through meditation and withdrawal from distractions around you.

See Also: Integration Through Samadhi: A Complete Guide to the Eighth Limb of Yoga

At The Yoga Warrior, we believe in honing all 8 limbs of yoga and living a full and authentic life through this practice. To get started on your practice of the 8 limbs of yoga, check out the Essence of Yoga Bundle with Sri Dharma Mittra that’s hosted on Alo Moves.

Megan Herndon

Megan is a Seattle-based writer who covers health and wellness. She has worked in content marketing and journalism for a number of organizations including The Seattle Globalist, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and The Jakarta Globe. She has a BA in journalism from the University of Washington and is currently working on her second UW degree, a Master of Communication and Digital Media. Born and raised in Hawaii and currently embracing the Pacific Northwest lifestyle, Megan loves all things active and outdoors including hiking, camping, outrigger canoe paddling, and yoga.

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