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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. We find that a increases in age at marriage and acculturation were associated with greater substance use, b the associations between age at marriage, acculturation, and substance use were found to be greater for Hispanic women than men, and c with each additional child born, Hispanic women are increasingly less likely to use substances than Hispanic men. Data reveal that family processes and acculturation tly impact substance use. Although the prevalence of substance use varies across segments of the Hispanic population, the gender gap appears to remain constant.
Efforts to understand variation in substance-related outcomes among Hispanic adults have tended to focus on cultural explanations and, in particular, the role of acculturation. There is consistent support for this perspective: less-acculturated Hispanics tend to use alcohol and drugs at lower rates than their more acculturated counterparts 710 — 11 and, as Hispanics become more acculturated to U. However, there is concern that the growing body of research linking acculturation with alcohol and drug use and other health outcomes is at the expense of research concerning the relevance of known protective factors for alcohol and drug use for the population in general.
Below, we draw on an elaborated role strain theory and use data from a community study with a representative sample of older Hispanic adults to assess the influence of age at marriage, of children, and acculturation for gender differences in alcohol and drug use. In this paper, we use the term role strain to refer to circumstances in which the demands of a particular role may be incompatible with a certain set of behaviors.
This definition, first articulated by Yamaguchi and Kandel, 17 differs from the common use of the term in the mental health literature to describe the competing demands of work and family roles. A central thesis of this role strain perspective is that the timing of entrance into roles influences personal behavior.
As an illustration, earlier entry into marriage is associated with less substance use, and, conversely, postponing marriage is associated with greater substance use. Becoming a parent is also seen as incompatible with regular substance use because it, too, reflects a change in lifestyle, social networks, and expectations from others. Prior study demonstrates that parenthood is associated with declines in substance use and lower overall patterns of lifetime substance use. Undercutting these considerations, as Wolfe notes, 26 the financial burden associated with having a larger family may also curtail substance use.
Therefore, since parental demands and responsibilities may leave less time, money, and inclination for the acquisition and use of substances, individuals may alter alcohol or drug use behaviors upon having children. There is also evidence that the effects of these family processes vary by gender. Although marriage is generally found to be protective against heavy alcohol and drug use, 25 studies find that marriage is found to curtail alcohol and drug use ificantly more for women than men.
We also have reason to believe family processes may have interactive effects with acculturation on alcohol or drug use. More acculturated individuals tend to use alcohol and drug use more frequently than their less acculturated counterparts. They may have larger social networks, more exposure to drug using peers, and consequently more permissive attitudes towards alcohol and drug use. However, as individuals become more acculturated to U. There is also evidence that the variation observed in alcohol and drug use by level of acculturation is more pronounced among Hispanic women than Hispanic men.
Lending support to this perspective, several scholars have suggested that the tendency of less-acculturated women to enter into marriage early in life and have large families may protect Hispanic women from using alcohol and drugs. Clarifying our understanding of the mechanisms underlying differences in alcohol and drug use among Hispanic adults may provide researchers with a better understanding of the social and cultural contexts that influence substance use — an important precursor to enhancing health.
From to1, interviews were completed, with a success rate of 82 percent.Picking Up A Mexican Girl In Spanish (Subtitled)
Interviews were administered by well-trained and predominantly bilingual interviewers using computerized questionnaires in either English or Spanish, as preferred by each participant. Additional details regarding the sampling and interview procedures are presented by Turner, Lloyd and Taylor The present study is based upon information gathered from the Latino study participants, all of whom are either married or have ly been married.
It should be noted that the majority of respondents 95 percent were born outside of the U. It should also be noted that the oversampling of persons with physical disabilities resulted in a greater proportion of older respondents than in the general population. Although ages in the sample range from 18 to 93, the median age is Summary statistics for all study variables are found in Table 1. We examine two substance-related outcomes: alcohol use and drug use. Our measure of alcohol use is based on the multiplicative function of how often a respondent drank alcohol in the past month and the amount of alcohol consumed when one did drink alcohol.
Independent variables included in the analyses are gender, age at marriage, of children, and level of acculturation. Gender is coded 1 for females and 0 for males. Age at marriage is the age at which respondents married for the first time. of children is a count of the of children respondents have. Scores are calculated as the summed responses to these questions based on the : 0 Spanish all of the time; 1 Spanish most of the time; 2 Spanish and English equally; 3 English most of the time; and 5 English all of the time.
The sociodemographic characteristics of age, socioeconomic status and Cuban ethnicity and the of years a respondent has lived in the U. Age is employed as a continuous measure in years. Socioeconomic status is estimated in terms of three components—income, education and occupational prestige level. We selected this approach because information on household income could not be obtained for 19 percent of this sample. Scores on these three dimensions are standardized, summed, and divided by the of measures on which each respondent provided data.
Years in the U. We use negative binomial regression to examine the influence of acculturation, age at marriage and of children on alcohol and drug use. Negative binomial regression, an elaboration of Poisson regression 34is the most common method for analyzing count outcomes that are not normally distributed. This method corrects for overdispersion, which exists when the variance of the dependent variable in this case, the alcohol use and drug use variables is greater than its mean. We selected this approach because likelihood ratio tests of the present data show ificant evidence of overdispersion, indicating that the negative binomial model provides a Wm looking for hispanic girl fit than the Poisson model or OLS regression.
We present eight regression models for each of the outcome variables in order to assess the influence of acculturation, age at marriage and of children on gender differences in alcohol and drug use. Model 1 regresses the dependent variables i. Model 2 includes the gender by acculturation interaction to examine whether there are gender differences in the effects of acculturation on alcohol and drug use, net of the remaining variables.
Models 3—5 examine the potential moderating role of age at marriage: Model 3 introduces the interactions of gender by age at marriage to assess whether there are gender differences in the effects of age at marriage on alcohol and drug use.
Model 4 considers whether age at marriage and family size may further vary as a function of acculturation. Model 5 includes the three-way interactions of gender, age at marriage and level of acculturation. Similarly, Models 6—8 consider the potential moderating role of family size. Model 6 includes the interaction of gender by of children and Model 7 introduces the interaction of of children by acculturation. Model 8 considers the three-way interaction of gender, family size and acculturation. Mean contrasts by gender for all study variables are also presented in Table 1.
The of these comparison tests generally conform to our expectations. Women use alcohol and drugs ificantly less frequently than men. These analyses also indicate that the women sampled married at ificantly younger ages and report greater acculturation than the men included in this study.
Table 2 presents the of regression analyses considering the ificance of acculturation, age at marriage and family size for alcohol use. As anticipated, women use alcohol and drugs less frequently than men Model 1. Model 1 also reveals that acculturation and marrying at older ages are associated with an increased risk for using alcohol. The ificant interaction observed in Model 2 indicates that increases in acculturation are associated with a greater likelihood of using alcohol and drugs for women than men.
Model 3 shows that there is also gender variation in the influence of age at marriage for alcohol use. Marrying at older ages is associated with a ificantly greater likelihood of using alcohol for women than men. Although the combined effects of marrying at an older age and greater acculturation do not generally place individuals at greater risk for alcohol use Model 4indicate that women who marry at older ages and are more acculturated may be more likely to use alcohol than similarly-situated men Model 5. The coefficient for the three-way interaction of gender, acculturation and age at marriage is only marginally ificant.
Models 6—8 demonstrate that family size also has a moderating role in predicting alcohol use. Model 6 reveals that increases in family size are associated with ificantly lower rates of alcohol use for women than men. The of Model 7 indicate that the influence of family size for alcohol use is ificantly less among individuals who are less acculturated, or vice versa — a pattern of findings that does not appear to vary by gender Model 8.
The regression analysis of drug use is presented as Table 3. Consistent with the pattern of findings for alcohol use, women are less likely than men to use drugs, and higher levels of acculturation and marrying at older ages are associated with a greater tendency to use drugs Model 1. Greater acculturation Model 2 and age at marriage Model 3 appear to be particularly salient predictors of drug use for women compared to men.
These factors also appear to have a synergistic influence in predicting drug use, such that the combined effects of marrying at an older age and greater acculturation place individuals at greater risk for drug use Model 4. Moreover, women who marry at older ages and are more acculturated are more likely to use drugs than similarly-situated men Model 5. The moderating effects of family size for drug use are somewhat more modest.
Increases in family size are marginally associated with lower rates of drug use for women than men Model 6. However, consistent with the findings presented in Table 2the influence of acculturation for drug use is ificantly less among individuals with larger families, or vice versa Model 7. This pattern of findings also does not appear to vary by gender when drug use is considered as the outcome Model 8.
As a final step, we considered the potential for interactive effects of age at marriage and family size for gender differences in alcohol and drug use by level of acculturation. In analyses not presented, we divided the sample into two groups based upon reported level of acculturation.
We also considered whether the of years one has lived in the U. Additional analyses considered the interactive ificance of years in the U. None of the coefficients for these interactions approached ificance. Building upon research, we find the association between age at marriage and alcohol and drug use is more pronounced for Hispanic women than Hispanic men.
The direction of the effects indicates that Hispanic women who marry at older ages are at greater risk of using substances. We also find that Hispanic women who have more children are less likely to engage in alcohol use than their male counterparts. It appears, therefore, that family role processes are particularly protective of substance use among Hispanic women. These processes also appear to vary by level of acculturation, wherein greater acculturation is associated with greater use.
However, we question whether it may be that these factors are restrictive rather than protective. This issue may be clarified by considering additional mental health outcomes. For example, it is uncertain whether these family and acculturative processes also contribute to observed differences in depression and anxiety, for which Hispanic women are at greater risk than Hispanic men.
Additionally, we found that the of years lived in the U. This brings to light an important question for future research: why does acculturation which, in the present investigation, is based on language preference rather than time spent in the U. One possibility may be that language preference ifies assimilation into U. It could also reflect acculturative stress exposure or more permissive views of alcohol and drug use. We recommend this consideration for future research.
We also question why the effects of family processes and acculturation would vary by gender among Hispanics. Warner and colleagues 30 argue that negative sanctions and stigma against female substance use may for these differences. Alcohol and drug use is seen as more permissive for women living in the U.
Certain limitations of the present investigation merit further comment. First, the Miami-Dade County context of this study involves a large and relatively unique Hispanic population within which the two largest Hispanic subgroups within the country Puerto Ricans and persons of Mexican descent are virtually unrepresented. Although the key findings reported are observed across the Hispanic ethnic groups included in this study, additional analysis with nationally-representative data may provide increased confidence in the generalizability of these findings.
Second, the data employed in this study are cross-sectional and provide only a snapshot of the undoubtedly complex relationship between family processes, acculturation, gender and substance use among Hispanics. We recommend this for future study. These limitations notwithstanding, the present study provides a clearer understanding of the role of family processes and acculturation in influencing gender differences in substance use among Hispanics.
Future research, therefore, should be mindful of the role of these factors in influencing substance use among Hispanics. Sunshine M. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. J Addict Dis. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jan 8.
Author information Copyright and information Disclaimer. Copyright notice. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Keywords: substance use, gender, race, ethnicity, family processes, acculturation.Wm looking for hispanic girl
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